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References

2014

Articles:

Audinot, J. -N., Hamdan, A., Grysan, P., Fleming, Y., Noel, C., Kosior, F., Henrion, G. and Belmonte, T.
SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 46(1, SI):397-400 Audinot, JN (Reprint Author), Ctr Rech Publ Gabriel Lippmann, SAM Dept, 41 Rue Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg. Audinot, J. -N.; Grysan, P.; Fleming, Y., Ctr Rech Publ Gabriel Lippmann, SAM Dept, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg. Hamdan, A.; Noel, C.; Kosior, F.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T., Univ Lorraine, Inst Jean Lamour, CNRS, UMR 7198,CS 50840, F-54011 Nancy, France.
2014
ISSN: 0142-2421

Mots clefs: imaging; combinaison; characterization; plasma; nanosims; 3D

Resume: The discharge between a platinum electrode and different metallic monolayers on a silicon substrate produced sub-micrometric structures. The scanning electron microscope images showed the formation of craters with cones, holes, corona, and other exotic structures. The atomic force microscopy images allowed evaluating the depth and height of these complex structures together with the chemical information as determined by NanoSIMS imaging. The plasma impacts locally removed the mono-layer and the bilayer down to the bare silicon substrate. In order to convert the acquired NanoSIMS images into a true three-dimensional distribution of the analyzed species, the SIMS images are overlapped with the corresponding atomic force microscopy images of the same probed area. This analysis method allows a visualization of a complex 3D structure and helps understand the formation mechanisms of the streamer impact. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Equipe: Centre de Compétences : ERMIONE informatique et calcul

Jana, A., Briquet, L., WIRTZ, T., Philipp, P. and Henrion, G.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 326:341-344
2014

Resume: The deposition of multiple carbon atoms on a crystalline silicon (Si) surface is modelled at 5 eV energy by using molecular dynamics simulations combined with a third generation force field that includes bond breaking and formation. Force field parameters are taken from a previous work. These simulations allow for atomic scale insights into the deposition mechanisms and an easier comparison with experimental observations. The results, including distributions of implantation depth, carbon concentrations, sticking coefficients, radial distribution function, and angular distributions are compared for different incidence angles. Due to the deposition of carbon atoms inside the silicon structure, silicon carbide starts to form. The crystalline structure has been investigated for different conditions to get a better understanding of the damaging and growth mechanisms. It is found that a lot of deformation is accumulated in the area of deposition near to the surface but underneath the surface the silicon has still a more crystalline structure. The variation of the silicon (carbide) structu re slightly depends on the angle of incidence. For the conditions used for these simulations, the sticking probability is always high and varies between 95% and 100%, which can be attributed to the high affinity of carbon for silicon.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Derkaoui, N., Rond, C., Gries, T., Henrion, G. and Gicquel, A.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47:205201
2014

Resume: The electron temperature and electron density are measured in a microwave (MW) plasma-assisted chemical vapour diamond deposition reactor for different experimental conditions by varying the substrate temperature, methane content and MW power density. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and MW interferometry are used to probe the discharge generated in a stainless steel resonant cavity excited at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Changing the substrate temperature from 630 to 900 ?C does not show any significant influence on the electron temperature or on the electron density. Increasing the methane content from 0 to 10% does not lead to any modification of the electron temperature or density. However between 10% and 20% CH, a decrease of the electron density is observed which may be attributed to soot particle formation. The electron density increases in the range of (1.2-10) x 1011 cm-3 from moderate power density conditions (50 hPa/1000 W) to high power density conditions (250 hPa/3500 W). OES measurements show that the electron temperature exhibits a flat axial profile in the plasma bulk and ranges from 14 000K at (25 hPa/600 W) to 10 500K at (400 hPa/3000 W).

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Martin, J., Leone, P., Nominé, A., Veys-Renaux, D., Henrion, G. and Belmonte, T.
Surface and Coatings Technology, In Press - available on line
2014

Resume: The chemical stability of the electrolyte in Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) has been the subject of much systematic investigation. The present study reports on experimental results on the ageing of a usual PEO electrolyte and its effect on the oxidation of the Al2214 aluminium alloy. A solution of potassium hydroxide ([KOH] = 1 g/L) and sodium silicate ([Na2SiO3] = 1.65 g/L) diluted in deionized water was either aged by running a process during 8 h at most or not. Comparison between materials treated in either solution was made next. Cross-checked experimental results from analytical chemistry, plasma diagnostics and materials science clearly evidence the effect of ageing of the electrolyte on the PEO process behaviour. The transition from arc to "soft" regime occurs earlier (from 18 min to 13 min processing time) as the electrolyte gets older. The concomitant decrease in the electrolyte electrical conductivity (from 7.5 mS.cm-1 to 6.8 mS.cm-1) is correlated with changes in the ionic species content in the electrolyte. Fast video-imaging (125 kfr./s) reveals that the micro-discharge characteristics are also sensitive since they become less numerous per area and unit time (from 220.103 cm-2s-1 to 120.103 cm-2s-1), exhibit shorter lifetime and have smaller sizes as the electrolyte ages. SEM observations of the as-grown coatings combined with roughness measures indicate a decrease in coating thickness ( ~ 20 %) and roughness ( ~ 30 %) while species from the electrolyte accumulate in the outer porous layer simultaneously with a gradual enrichment in a-Al2O3 phase in the inner compact layer (from 36 % to 43 %). Finally, within the PEO conditions that were used, it is shown that the ageing phenomenon of the PEO electrolyte starts to influence the process after 2 hours aged.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Veys-Renaux, D., ROCCA, E., Martin, J. and Henrion, G.
Electrochimica Acta, 124:30-45
2014

Resume: In the framework of the new ecological regulations, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) appears as an alternativeto usual processes in the field of corrosion protection of Mg alloys. In this work, the initial stagesof anodic layer growth in KOH-based electrolytes are studied up to and beyond the initiation of themicro-arc regime.The properties of the first anodized film preceding the occurrence of the dielectric breakdown (corre-sponding to the start of the micro-arc regime) are mainly determined by the incorporation of additives(fluorides or silicates) in the film, as shown by in situ electrochemical measurements. Scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveal boththe change of morphology and chemical state of silicate and fluoride in the anodized layer before andafter the micro-arc regime. In terms of electrochemical behaviour, investigated by stationary methodsand electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in reference corrosive water, the anodic film grownin the silicate medium provides the best corrosion resistance thanks to a thick layer containing Mg2SiO4,whose degradation products seal the porosities of the coating.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Belmonte, T., Hamdan, A., Kosior, F., Noel, C. and Henrion, G.
JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 47(22, SI) Belmonte, T (Reprint Author), Univ Lorraine, CNRS, Dept CP2S, Inst Jean Lamour, Parc Saurupt,CS 50840, F-54011 Nancy, France. Belmonte, T.; Hamdan, A.; Kosior, F.; Noel, C.; Henrion, G., Univ Lorraine, CNRS, Dept CP2S, Inst Jean Lamour, F-54011 Nancy, France.
2014
ISSN: 0022-3727

Mots clefs: discharges in liquids; plasma-surface interactions; nanoparticle synthesis

Resume: Discharge-surface interaction in liquids includes many phenomena which are reviewed in this work. This is used to examine results in the area of nanoparticle synthesis and to propose a general sketch of formation mechanisms.

Equipe: Centre de Compétences : ERMIONE informatique et calcul

Belmonte, T., Hamdan, A., Kosior, F., Noel, C. and Henrion, G.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47:224016 (18 pp)
2014

Resume: Discharge-surface interaction in liquids includes many phenomena which are reviewed in this work. This is used to examine results in the area of nanoparticle synthesis and to propose a general sketch of formation mechanisms.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Shchedrina, I., Rakoch, A.G., Henrion, G. and Martin, J.
Surface and Coatings Technology, 238:27-44
2014

Resume: The kinetic aspects of the coating formation on the 2024 aluminium alloy at different time intervals of the microarc oxidation process(MAO) in an alkaline-silicate electrolyte under the AC current are investigated.Moreover themain reasons of modifications in theMAO coating properties (corrosion resistance,microhardness) and phase composition during the process are shown. Finally, non-destructive controlmethods ofMAO coating properties are worked out.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Nominé, A., Martin, J., Noel, C., V. Bardin, I., L. Kovalev, V., Belmonte, T., G. Rakoch, A. and Henrion, G.
Applied Physics Letters, 104:081603
2014

Resume: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processing of EV31 magnesium alloy has been carried out in fluoride containing electrolyte under bipolar pulse current regime. Unusual PEO cathodic microdischarges have been observed and investigated. It is shown that the cathodic micro-discharges exhibit a collective intermittent behavior, which is discussed in terms of charge accumulations at the layer/electrolyte and layer/metal interfaces. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine the electron density (typ. 1015cm_3) and the electron temperature (typ. 7500K) while the role of F_ anions on the appearance of cathodic micro-discharges is pointed out.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

2013

Articles:

Hamdan, A., Noel, C., Kosior, F., Henrion, G. and Belmonte., T.
Journal of the Acoustical Society fo America, 134:991
2013

Resume: The determination of the initial pressure at the bubble wall created by a discharge in heptane for micro-gap conditions cannot be determined straightforwardly by modeling the time-oscillations of the bubble. The resolution of the Gilmore equation gives the same solutions beyond 1 mu s typically for various sets of initial parameters, making impossible the determination of the initial pressure at the bubble wall. Furthermore, the very first instant of the bubble formation is not easily accessible at very short time scales because of the plasma emission. Since the pressure waves propagate in the liquid, it is much easier to gain information on the first instants of the bubble formation by studying the pressure field far from the emission source. Then, it is possible to deduce by modeling what happened at the beginning of the emission of the pressure waves. The proposed solution consists in looking at the oscillations affecting another bubble located at least twice farther from the interelectrode gap than the maximum radius reached by the discharge bubble. The initial plasma pressure can be determined by this method. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

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