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2015

Articles:

Hazotte, Claire, Meux, Eric, Leclerc, Nathalie and Lapicque, Francois
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 96:83-93
2015

Mots clefs: Electroassisted leaching Electrodeposition Ni–Cd batteries Solid waste Transport rates

Resume: Abstract Combined leaching of solid wastes to electrodeposition can be an attractive technique for their optimal beneficiation. In most investigations in the area, results are given in terms of energy consumption and selectivity, without thorough analysis of the rates of the various processes involved. The present investigation deals with the significance of transport and transfer phenomena involved in relation to reaction processes, in a cell combining electroassisted leaching to electrodeposition in view to designing treatment processes of manufactured wares after their end of life. The case of the so-called black mass of used Ni–Cd batteries has been considered here, for the separate productions of nickel salts and metal cadmium. First, leaching of the various hydroxides contained in the black mass has been studied either upon addition of acid or by electrochemical generation of H+ at the anode. Moreover, transport of the metal cations produced from the anode compartment to the cathode through the cloth acting as the separator has been investigated through a simple description of transport phenomena. Comparison and discussion of the various transport or reaction rates could show that ion transport through the porous separator could represent the rate-determining step.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Chimie et électrochimie des matériaux

Hazotte, Claire, Leclerc, Nathalie, Diliberto, Sébastien, Meux, Eric and Lapicque, Francois
Environmental Technology, 36(6):796-805
2015

Resume: The aim of this paper is the characterization of spent NiCd batteries and the characterization of an industrial Black Mass obtained after crushing spent NiCd batteries and physical separation in a treatment plant. The characterization was first performed with five cylindrical NiCd batteries which were manually dismantled. Their characterization includes mass balance of the components, active powders elemental analysis and phase identification by X-ray powder diffraction. Chemical speciation of the two metals was also investigated. For cadmium, speciation was previously developed on solid synthetic samples. In a spent battery, the active powders correspond to about 43% of the battery weight. The other components are the separator and polymeric pieces (5%), the support plates (25%) and the carbon steel external case (27%). The sequential procedure shows that the nickel in the positive powders from the dismantled Ni?Cd batteries is distributed between Ni0 (39.7%), Ni(OH)2 (58.5%) and NiOOH (1.8%). Cadmium in the negative powder is about 99.9% as the Cd(OH)2 form with 0.1% of metal cadmium. In the industrial Black Mass, the distribution of cadmium is the same, whereas the distribution of nickel is Ni0 (46.9%), Ni(OH)2 (43.2%) and NiOOH (9.9%). This material contains also 1.8% cobalt and approx. 1% iron.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Chimie et électrochimie des matériaux

2014

Articles:

Lambert, C-H., Mangin, S., Varaprasad, B.S.D.C.S., Takahashi, Y.K., Hehn, M., Cinchetti, M., Malinowski, G., Hono, K., Fainman, Y., Aeschlimann, M. and Fullerton, E.E.
Science,
2014

Equipe: Département P2M : Nanomagnétisme et Electronique de Spin

Aliev, F.G., Cascales, J.P., Hallal, A., Chshiev, M. and Andrieu, S.
Physical Review Letters, 112(21)
2014

Equipe: Département P2M : Nanomagnétisme et Electronique de Spin

Audinot, J. -N., Hamdan, A., Grysan, P., Fleming, Y., Noel, C., Kosior, F., Henrion, G. and Belmonte, T.
SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 46(1, SI):397-400 Audinot, JN (Reprint Author), Ctr Rech Publ Gabriel Lippmann, SAM Dept, 41 Rue Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg. Audinot, J. -N.; Grysan, P.; Fleming, Y., Ctr Rech Publ Gabriel Lippmann, SAM Dept, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg. Hamdan, A.; Noel, C.; Kosior, F.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T., Univ Lorraine, Inst Jean Lamour, CNRS, UMR 7198,CS 50840, F-54011 Nancy, France.
2014
ISSN: 0142-2421

Mots clefs: imaging; combinaison; characterization; plasma; nanosims; 3D

Resume: The discharge between a platinum electrode and different metallic monolayers on a silicon substrate produced sub-micrometric structures. The scanning electron microscope images showed the formation of craters with cones, holes, corona, and other exotic structures. The atomic force microscopy images allowed evaluating the depth and height of these complex structures together with the chemical information as determined by NanoSIMS imaging. The plasma impacts locally removed the mono-layer and the bilayer down to the bare silicon substrate. In order to convert the acquired NanoSIMS images into a true three-dimensional distribution of the analyzed species, the SIMS images are overlapped with the corresponding atomic force microscopy images of the same probed area. This analysis method allows a visualization of a complex 3D structure and helps understand the formation mechanisms of the streamer impact. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Equipe: Centre de Compétences : ERMIONE informatique et calcul

Hamdan, A., Noel, C., Ghanbaja, J. and Belmonte, T.
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 34:1101-1114
2014

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

ZHOU, T., COLIN, M., CANDOLFI, C., Boulanger, C., DAUSCHER, A., Santava, E., HEJTMANEK, J., BARANEK, P., AL RAHAL AL ORABI, R., POTEL, M., Fontaine, B., GOUGEON, P., Gautier, R. and LENOIR, B.
Chemistry of Materials, 26(16):4765-4775
2014

Resume: We present a detailed study of the evolution of the electrical, galvanomagnetic, and thermodynamic properties of polycrystalline AgxMo9Se11 compounds for 3.4 ? x ? 3.8 at low temperatures (2?350 K). In agreement with density functional theory calculations, the collected data show an overall gradual variation in the transport properties from metallic to semiconducting behavior on going from x = 3.4 to 3.8. The results evidence subtle variations in the electronic properties with the Ag content, typified by both positive and negative phonon-drag effects together with thermopower and Hall coefficient of opposite signs. Analysis of the data suggests that these features may be due to peculiarities of the dispersion of the valence bands in the vicinity of the chemical potential. A drastic influence of the Ag content on the thermal transport was evidenced by a pronounced change in the temperature dependence of the specific heat below 10 K. Nonlinearities in the Cp(T3) data are correlated to the concentration of Ag atoms, with an increase in x resulting in a more pronounced departure from a Debye law. The observed behavior mirrors that of ionic conductors, suggesting that AgxMo9Se11 for x ? 3.6 might belong to this class of compounds.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Chimie et électrochimie des matériaux

Jana, A., Briquet, L., WIRTZ, T., Philipp, P. and Henrion, G.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 326:341-344
2014

Resume: The deposition of multiple carbon atoms on a crystalline silicon (Si) surface is modelled at 5 eV energy by using molecular dynamics simulations combined with a third generation force field that includes bond breaking and formation. Force field parameters are taken from a previous work. These simulations allow for atomic scale insights into the deposition mechanisms and an easier comparison with experimental observations. The results, including distributions of implantation depth, carbon concentrations, sticking coefficients, radial distribution function, and angular distributions are compared for different incidence angles. Due to the deposition of carbon atoms inside the silicon structure, silicon carbide starts to form. The crystalline structure has been investigated for different conditions to get a better understanding of the damaging and growth mechanisms. It is found that a lot of deformation is accumulated in the area of deposition near to the surface but underneath the surface the silicon has still a more crystalline structure. The variation of the silicon (carbide) structu re slightly depends on the angle of incidence. For the conditions used for these simulations, the sticking probability is always high and varies between 95% and 100%, which can be attributed to the high affinity of carbon for silicon.

Equipe: Département CP2S : Expériences et Simulations des Plasmas Réactifs - Interaction plasma-surface et Traitement des Surfaces ESPRITS

Wang, Y., Ghanbaja, J., SOLDERA, F., Boulet, P., Horwat, D., MUECKLICH, F. and Pierson, J. F.
ACTA MATERIALIA, 76:207-212
2014
ISSN: 1359-6454

Equipe: Centre de Compétences : X-Gamma rayons X et spectroscopie

Bellot, Jean-Pierre, De Felice, Valerio, Dussoubs, Bernard, Jardy, Alain and Hans, Stephane
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B-PROCESS METALLURGY AND MATERIALS PROCESSING SCIENCE, 45(1):13-21
2014
ISSN: 1073-5615

Resume: Gas-stirring ladle treatment of liquid metal has been pointed out for a long time as the processing stage is mainly responsible for the inclusion population of specialty steels. A steel ladle is a complex three-phase reactor, where strongly dispersed inclusions are transported by the turbulent liquid metal/bubbles flow. We have coupled a population balance model with CFD in order to simulate the mechanisms of transport, aggregation, flotation, and surface entrapment of inclusions. The simulation results, when applied to an industrial gas-stirring ladle operation, show the efficiency of this modeling approach and allow us to compare the respective roles of these mechanisms on the inclusion removal rate. The comparison with literature reporting data emphasizes the good prediction of deoxidating rate of the ladle. On parallel, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been set-up incorporating the same kinetics law for the aggregation rate and all the removal mechanisms. A particular attention has been paid on the averaging method of the hydrodynamics parameters introduced in the flotation and kinetics kernels.

Equipe: Centre de Compétences : ERMIONE informatique et calcul

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